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Reaganomics and NASA’s Environmental Role in the 1980s

At the beginning of 1980s the American economy was suffering through a deep recession, that, at the time, was the most significant since the Great Depression. The Iranian Revolution of 1979 and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan had affected world oil supplies and prices. Soon gasoline shortages began to bite.  Cars waited for hours to get gasoline and riots erupted in the long queues.  In 1980 inflation reached a startling 13.5% and unemployment rose into double digits, higher than at any time in post-war era.

On November 1980, Ronald Reagan, a reform-minded conservative politician, was elected President of the United States with the promise to restore prosperity by getting “the government off the backs of the American people.” Adding his own beliefs and ideas about cutting taxes, slashing spending, and deregulating the economy to those of Paul Volcker’s, chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System between 1979 and 1987, Reagan set a course to revitalise the economy of the United States.

Paul Volcker, Time Magazine cover, 22 October, 1979

Soon after he took office in January 1981, President Reagan called for a massive cut in government spending, an even more drastic cut in taxation (particularly the income tax), a balanced budget by 1984, and a return to the gold standard. The last, after a report by the appointed U.S. Gold Commission, was quickly interred but Ronald Reagan delivered on each of his other policy objectives, although not to the degree that was intended. The increased military spending, mainly due to his ambitious Strategic Defence Initiative (SDI) programme, dubbed “Star Wars”, plus the tax cuts, and the Congress’ refusal to make any deep cuts to the welfare state would cost the federal government trillions of dollars. Reagan’s failure to address the savings and loan problem led to an additional debt. At the end of his presidency the national debt had been tripled. Nevertheless, his policies helped to restore confidence in the American economy.

President Reagan phones the crew of the second Space Shuttle mission from Mission Control in 1981. Photo credit: NASA https://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/imagegallery/image_feature_183_reagan.html Standing behind Reagan, left to right, are Terry J. Hart, Dr. Hans Mark,  James M. Beggs, and Dr. Christopher C. Kraft Jr. Seated next to the President is astronaut Daniel C. Brandenstein.

Reagan was a supporter of NASA’s space exploration program. Three months after he took office, on April 12, 1981, the Space Shuttle Columbia launched on its first mission and in his 1984 State of the Union Address he announced plans for a permanent human presence in space with the construction of a space station.

 “A space station will permit quantum leaps in our research in science, communications, in metals, and in lifesaving medicines which could be manufactured only in space. We want our friends to help us meet these challenges and share in their benefits. NASA will invite other countries to participate so we can strengthen peace, build prosperity, and expand freedom for all who share our goals.”

Ronald Reagan

Despite the approval of NASA’S existing programmes, the political and economic situation in the early 1980s had changed and forced the agency to rethink its program strategy, albeit with the reduced expectations and at reduced budget levels. The agency’s new administrator James Beggs had taken a keen interest in using satellites’ technology for Earth observation but his enthusiasm was not shared by NASA’s associate administrator Hans Mark. Mark, a strong supporter of the space station – NASA’s major project that period – believed that an earthly science programme could damage NASA’s priorities in space and it could provoke an escalated antagonism with other agencies, NOAA for example.

Nevertheless, Hans Mark asked the guidance of Richard Goody, a geophysics of Harvard University, with whom Mark had worked with when he was Director of the Ames Research Centre. Richard Goody recalls that Mark took him aside (in an unused Xerox room) and explained him NASA’s idea about an ambitious global climate programme, a large space mission to observe the earth system to explore the links and the interactions between the major system components of the earth, how they have evolved, function, and how they may be expected to evolve on all time scales.

Richard Goody

The idea of the Earth as one interacting system had a certain appeal for Richard Goody. He suggested that such a programme could bring a focus to NASA’s observation programme which, at the time, did not seem to have a sense of direction. It could also protect the agency from Reagan administration budget cuts. He agreed to participate in the project.

In order to identify practical objectives and examine the feasibility of the programme, NASA formed an ad hoc committee, headed by Richard Goody. The committee included fifty scientists from a wide range of scientific disciplines, such as chemistry, biology, physics and space science, among them, Wallace Broecker, Paul Crutzen, James Hansen, Lynn Margulis, and  V. Ramanathan

Announcing the committee’s meeting NASA’s director of Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Bruce Murray, (JPL had already developed an experimental earth observation satellite called SEASAT to test oceanographic sensors) said that there was growing evidence that human’s interference to the natural process of climate had reached a point that could affect every aspect of the human habitability on this planet.

 “the Earth’s climate has been undergoing large and rapid natural changes throughout the glacial ages, a geological period that still continues”.

He claimed that the atmospheric CO2 balance that governs temperature and in the long run the melting of the ice caps and the rise in sea levels was perilously close to responding to human activity. Burton Edelson, head of the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) said that the “global monitoring” by satellites could offer to scientists and policy-makers the answers to climate change  and the undergoing changes that affect life on planet.

Finally, on behalf of the committee Richard Goody said that although there has been a lot of work over the past five or six years on climate, NASA’s programme “would establish a more coherent, directed approach to observe and monitor long-term changes in the atmosphere and how they affect the habitability of the globe”.

Two months after NASA’s announcement, between 21- 26 June, 1982, the newly established committee, met at Woods Hole, Massachusetts, to consider and establish the development of a coordinated program of research regarding the future habitability of the planet.


Sources and further reading:

  1. Diane N. Westcott and  Robert W, Bednarzik, Employment and unemployment: a report on 1980 https://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1981/02/art1full.pdf
  2. John Karaagac, Between Promise and Policy: Ronald Reagan and Conservative Reformism (Lexington Books, 2001).
  3. David Harvey, “ A brief History of Neoliberalism”, (Oxford University Press, 2005)
  4. James Tobin , “Monetary Policy”  Library of Economics and Liberty”, <http://www.econlib.org/LIBRARY/Enc/MonetaryPolicy.html>  (25/09/2007)
  5. Ten Presidents and NASA, https://www.nasa.gov/50th/50th_magazine/10presidents.html
  6. Ronald Reagan, Address Before a Joint Session of the Congress on the State of the Union, January 25, 1984, http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=40205
  7. Bruce A.. Smith, NASA considers Programme to watch Global Climate (Aviation Week and Space Technology,10 May, 1982)
  8. W.H., Lambright, Administrative Entrepreneurship and Space Technology
  9. Feature image: Massive phytoplankton bloom, in the Gulf of Alaska. Credit: NASA

From Mars Exploration to Space Station and System Z. An ambitious programme to study the Earth

On 15 July 1965, the Mariner 4 spacecraft sent the first close-up images of the Red Planet to  Earth. These blurry images  revealed the cratered, rust-colored surface of  the planet and discouraged those who believed that there might be life on Mars. A  New York Times editorial said that “Mars is probably a dead planet” and most of the scientific community agreed, at that time, with this account.

Mariner 4 image, the first close-up image ever taken of Mars. This shows an area about 330 km across by 1200 km from limb to bottom of frame, centered at 37 N, 187 W. The area is near the boundary of Elysium Planitia to the west and Arcadia Planitia to the east. The hazy area barely visible above the limb on the left side of the image may be clouds

Mariner 4 image, the first close-up image ever taken of Mars. This shows an area about 330 km across by 1200 km from limb to bottom of frame, centered at 37 N, 187 W. The area is near the boundary of Elysium Planitia to the west and Arcadia Planitia to the east. The hazy area barely visible above the limb on the left side of the image may be clouds. Credit: NASA

Nevertheless, NASA continued its exploration of Mars. Mariner 9 (1971)  revealed a planet of varied environments and changed scientists’s perceptions about the Red Planet and led to Viking mission. Viking 1 and 2 landers were the first spacecrafts to touch successfully the surface of Mars in 1976.

A few months before the launch of Viking 1, in  1976,  NASA invited a team of specialists to discuss extensively all aspects of the Mars in a three-week meeting. Concluding the meeting Michael Mc Elroy of Harvard University, said something he had been discussing with a few other earth scientists for some time: “You know, we’ve never done anything like this for earth.”

The need for a multidisciplinary programme to study global change was the subject of the discussion for some time within the scientific community. A few Earth scientists were pondering a multidisciplinary geosphere-biosphere research programme in the context of IGY, but the political, economical and ideological circumstances that could endorse such a venture, did not exist at the time.

The arrival of Reagan administration in 1981 brought a change in NASA’s leadership. The new administrator James Beggs, and Burton Edelson, head of the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA), had taken a keen interest in using satellites’ technology for Earth observation but their enthusiasm was not shared by NASA’s associate administrator Hans Mark. Mark, a strong supporter of the space station – NASA’s major project that period – believed that an earthly science programme could damage NASA’s priorities in space and it could provoke an escalated antagonism with other agencies, NOAA for example.

Richard Goody

Nevertheless, Hans Mark asked the guidance of Richard Goody, a geophysics of Harvard University, with whom Mark had worked with when he was Director of the Ames Research Centre. Richard Goody recalls that Mark took him aside (in an used Xerox room) and explained him NASA’s idea about an ambitious global climate programme. It included a large space mission to observe the earth system and explore the links and the interactions between the major system components of the earth, how they have evolved, function, and how they may be expected to evolve on all time scales.

The idea of the Earth as one interacting system had a certain appeal for Richard Goody. He suggested that such a programme could bring a focus to NASA’s observation programme which, at the time, did not seem to have a sense of direction. It could also protect the agency from Reagan administration budget cuts. He agreed to participate in the project.

But, there was a problem. NASA’s Earth observation program had been in NASA’s applications division, which purpose was the development of practical commercialising technology and its  budget was far too small to support the development of new knowledge.  After much discussion,  the agency made a tempting offer that both scientists and bureaucrats found hard to turn down.  NASA proposed a satellite remote sensing system which was dubbed “System Z” and called for the Space Shuttle to lift the polar-orbiting Earth-observing platforms into space.  By carrying the cost of the satellite platforms, NASA’s  hoped that the money for System Z would have come from Space Station Freedom (the NASA project that led eventually to the International Space Station).

This artist’s concept depicts the Space Station Freedom as it would look orbiting the Earth, illustrated by Marshall Space Flight Center artist, Tom Buzbee. (1991) Source: Wikipedia

The basic concept behind System Z was integrated Earth observations. More specific to gather satellite data on world ecology and natural resources and predict the Earth’s habitability over the next 50 or so years.

The feedback received by scientists was positive and optimistic. Thomas Donahue, former chair of the NRC Space Science Board, referred to System Z, as “a gift” that “was merged with the developing ideas about putting a lot of Earth observing remote sensing instruments on a single platform”. System Z would allow them to conduct simultaneous measurements of many environmental and climate variables such as air and surface temperatures, vegetation, cloud reflectivity, and ice cover, observe the multiple factors that affect earth’s ability to support life and better understand the past and future but most importantly predict the trends of future climates.

An early sketch of “System Z.” Credit: Mark Abbott; Originally published by the Earth Observer. Source: NASA

President Reagan refused to launch the Space Station Freedom initiative in 1982 and then again in 1983.  Since System Z was tied to Space Station program it had been forces to wait until the President’s approval. He finally announced – overruling most of his advisers – his approval during his January 25, 1984 State of the Union address. “A space station will permit quantum leaps in our research in science, communications, in metals, and in lifesaving medicines which could be manufactured only in space,” he said and invited the allies of the United States to participate in the space station program.

While System Z was not approved as part of the Space Station Programme at this point, NASA decided to move forward with the development of the system, now renamed Earth Observing System (EOS).


  1. The Search For Martian Life Begins: 1959-1965,  On Mars: Exploration of the Red Planet. 1958-1978, https://www.hq.nasa.gov/pao/History/SP-4212/ch3.html
  2. Edward Edelson, “Laying the Foundation”, Mosaic 19,3/4 (Winter/Fall 1988),6
  3. Kennedy, The U.S. Government and Global Environmental Change Research, 4
  4. Richard Goody, “Observing and thinking about the Atmosphere”, Annual Review of Energy and the Environment, 27 (2002), 15
  5. M. M. Waldrop, “An inquiry into the state of the Earth”, Science, Vol. 226, No 4670 (October 5, 1984), 34
  6. G. Taubes, “Earth Scientists Look NASA’s Gift Horse in the Mouth” ,Science, Vol 259, No 5097, (12 February,1993), 912
  7. William K. Stevens, ‘Huge space platforms seen as distorting studies of earth’ New York Times 19 June 1990, Section C, page 1.
  8. Ten Presidents and NASA, https://www.nasa.gov/50th/50th_magazine/10presidents.html

NASA‘s New Earthy profile – LANDSAT

On 28 July 1970, while Congress still debated NASA’s funding, Tom Paine submitted his resignation as NASA administrator, effective September 15, to President Nixon. He was going to return to General Electric, the company he left to become deputy administrator. Many had argued that he resigned over NASA budget cuts, although the newspapers from the day, indicated that he had personal concerns.  Probably the most decisive factor was the slushing of the space exploration program, one of Paine’s big dreams.

With Paine’s leaving, NASA decided to turn its sight to planet Earth.  A few scientists had begun to publish papers that described a general scientific consensus that the burning of fossil fuels was changing global climate.  As the evidence of climate change could no longer be easily dismissed and with NASA’s funding failing, the acting administrator George M. Low decided that the agency needed to change its strategy.

It is clear that is we are to move forward with a strong space program, it, too, must be useful to the people here on earth. This means that a space applications program and specifically, an earth resources program should be the keystone for the space effort of the 70s.

Swearing in of George M. Low as Deputy Administrator of NASA . Source: Wikipedia Commons

What Low was really proposed was William’s Pickering idea for “practical earthly applications” a decade ago. One of Low’s first steps was to publish a booklet, Ecological Surveys From Space, illustrated with 46 Gemini and Apollo orbital photos. Soon afterwards, NASA published This Island Earth, which included many stunning photographs of Earth taken by the crews of Apollo 7 and Apollo 9, as well as a number of photographs from taken by weather satellites.

In the meantime, an innovative earth resources satellite programme called Earth Resources Technology Satellite, that NASA had been proposing since the 1967 with the support of the Department of the Interior, was in danger of going no further due to lack of funds.  Despite, James Webb’s skills as a political operator, the Budget Bureau had turned down his request for an extra funding of $12.2 million for research and development of this experimental earth resources satellite system, arguing that there were uncertainties about the benefits it could bring and also about the risks of bringing attention to military reconnaissance satellites.

The Earth Resources Technology Satellite programme would have been cancelled if President Nixon had not publically committed the country to an earth resources satellite programme in a speech before the United Nations in September 1969.

“There will be new journeys of discovery. Beyond this, we are just beginning to comprehend the benefits that space technology can yield here on earth. And the potential is enormous. For example, we now are developing earth resource survey satellites, with the first experimental satellite to be launched sometime early in the decade of the seventies.”

Despite the raised concerns over budget and security, Nixon agreed to provide the necessary budget for the first earth resources satellite.

 In March 1971, James C. Fletcher became NASA’s fourth administrator and George M. Low resumed his duties as number-two in the agency. Recognising the new realities of the economy and society, Fletcher decided to open NASA to new areas of operations. In July 1973, he announced that NASA’s new mission will be to study and understand the Earth and its environment.

“As you know NASA is called the space agency, but in a broader sense we could also be called an environmental agency. It is not just that space is our environment, but it is rather that, as you have seen, virtually everything we do, manned or unmanned, science or applications, helps in some practical way to improve the environment of our planet and helps us understand the forces that affect it. Perhaps that is our essential task, to study and understand the Earth and its environment”.

Dr. James C. Fletcher @NASA

Fletcher, probably affected by his religious beliefs, sought to align NASA with environmental values. A believer of the Mormon faith, he accepted the theological idea that everything belongs to God and humans had to care for God’s things. During his two services as NASA Administrator, between 1971 and 1977 and again between 1987 and 1989, James Fletcher tried to transform NASA into a much diverse and practically oriented agency with an emphasis on earthly applications in order to assist in making the planet a better place on which to live.

The Earth Resources Technology Satellite programme was eventually renamed Landsat in 1975. Landsat 1, the first earth–oriented satellite to use remote sensing to survey earth resources, was launched in 1972, followed by Landsat 2 in 1975, and three more until 1984.

Landsat 5

Operations for Landsat 5 – launched in November 1984 –  ceased in November 2011 and in those 25 year it collected hundreds of thousands of digital images of the planet Earth. It documented droughts, volcanic eruptions, the clearing of rainforests, it provided data to predict spring flooding, it helped scientists to monitor snow cover and glaciers, it recorded the influence of a human population that grew from less than 5 billion to over 7 billion.

Despite the problems on the development of Landsat, the conflicts based on budgetary issues and security concerns, and the controversies between NASA and other state agencies, NASA realised and effectively responded to the new economic and societal realities. It was a valuable experience that helped the agency to build a strong base that supported NASA’s Mission to Planet Earth programme in the 1980s.

Sources and further reading:
  1. Roger D. Launius and Howard E McCurdy, Spaceflight and the Myth of Presidential Leadership, University of Illinois Press , 1997
  2. Kim McQuaid, “Selling the Space Age” NASA and Earth’s environment, 1958-1190” Environment and History, 12-2(2006), 127-163.
  3. Address Before the 24th Session of the General Assembly of the United Nations, September 18, 1969, http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=2236
  4. Pamela E. Mack, Viewing the Earth: The social construction of the Landsat satellite system, (Cambridge. MA:MIT Press,1990):84-88
  5. Joseph Smith III, Roger D. Launius Interview to Resonance, March and April 2000, [http://www.resonancepub.com/launius.htm] Available from Resonance Publications, the portal fro Science, Engineering and Technology
  6. Roger D. Launius, “A western Mormon in Washington, D.C.: James C. Fletcher, NASA, and the final frontier,” Pacific Historical Review, 64:2 (May 1995) :222-226
  7. The Legacy of Landsat 5, https://landsat.usgs.gov/legacy-landsat-5
  8. Featured image: Landsat 8

 

“We Choose to go to the Moon”, and Beyond

You could cut the humidity with a knife that day in Houston. It was 12 September 1962 and more than 35,000 spectators had gathered at the Rice stadium to hear President John F. Kennedy speak. The temperature was 94 degrees (34.5 degrees Celsius). It was fiercely hot.

There are certain moments in history that define the future of a nation. Kennedy’s speech in Houston was one of this moments. Before the decade was finished, Kennedy said, America was determined to land a man in the moon and bring him safety back to Earth.

 We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard.

President Kennedy, at Rice Stadium in 1962, prepares the nation for the lunar landing

President Kennedy had a bold vision. He shared it with his fellow Americans, he inspired generations of Americans to think big. He called them to think what kind of country they want to build. It was the day that project Apollo’s race to the Moon began. Kennedy’s vision came true, on 20 July 1969, when the astronaut Neil Armstrong stepped onto the lunar surface.

But Kennedy’s attitude toward the U.S. space program was more complex and not all about going to the moon. On a special message to the congress on urgent national needs on 25 May, 1961, he asked for additional funds to accelerate the use of space satellites for world-wide communications; 75 million dollars- “of which 53 million dollars is for the Weather Bureau–will help give us at the earliest possible time a satellite system for world-wide weather observation.”

NASA had already built a satellite programme that was yielding excellent results both in terms of scientific knowledge and practical application. The pictures, transmitted by TIROS and Nimbus satellites, were of high value to meteorologists and other scientists, as for the first time they could see images of entire weather systems, and allowed them to create maps of the entire Earth.

Space exploration has rarely been the top priority for NASA. The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 specified that the new agency would contribute materially to eight separate objectives.  With the retirement of James E. Webb on October 1968, NASA’s Deputy Administrator, Dr Thomas O. Paine, a man obsessed with space exploration, was named Acting Administrator of NASA.

When Nixon took office, Paine submitted his resignation, but when all Nixon’s candidates declined the position, Nixon decided to stick with Thomas Paine. He was nominated as NASA’s third Administrator on March 20, 1969.

Wernher von Braun talks with NASA Associate Administrator Dr. Thomas Paine at the Launch Control Center of the Kennedy Space Center prior to the launch of Apollo 6 on April 4, 1968. (NASA Photo 107-KSC-68P-125.)

Paine’s aspiration was to develop an Apollo like programme that could get men to Mars in 30 years. But support and interest in space exploration had waned. At the end of 1967, The New York Times reported that a poll conducted in six American cities showed that public issues, such as air and water pollution and poverty, held priority over efforts on outer space. And the following year Newsweek wrote: ‘The U.S. space program is in decline.  The Vietnam war and the desperate conditions of the nation’s poor and its cities – which make space flight seem, in comparison, like an embarrassing national self‑indulgence – have combined to drag down a program where the sky was no longer the limit.”

Tighter budgets, imposed by the Nixon administration, had been a major impediment to space exploration, and amongst NASA officials there were concerns whether the money spent in space exploration were money well spent. In the meantime, the  technological and scientific priorities of the administration had been changed. In a statement  issued on 7th March, 1970, Nixon said that while space exploration was worthwhile, and that a “great nation must always be an exploring nation”, a space effort should also have practical applications and produce benefits for life on Earth. He stated that “We should hasten and expand the practical applications of space technology,” because “many critical problems here on this planet make high priority demands on our attention and our resource.”

In less than six months after Apollo 11 landed on the moon, NASA announced the cancellation of Apollo flights. Thomas Paine’s dream to go to Mars died with a whimper.

Until now.  On September 2016, in Guadalajara, Mexico, at the 67th International Astronautical Congress, the SpaceX founder Elon Musk has disclosed his ambitious vision for manned missions to Mars, which he said could begin as soon as 2022.

A few months later, on 21st March, 2017, President Trump signed the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Transition Authorization Act of 2017. The mandate: get people to Mars by 2033.

Sources and further reading:
  1. Special Message to the Congress on Urgent National Needs, May 25, 1961, http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=8151
  2. National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, https://history.nasa.gov/spaceact.html
  3.  Roger D. Launius, “A western Mormon in Washington, D.C.: James C. Fletcher, NASA, and the final frontier,” Pacific Historical Review, 64:2 (May 1995) :222
  4. Homer E. Newell, “Beyond the Atmosphere:Early years of Space Science” Appendix J, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (1980) [http://history.nasa.gov/SP-4211/cover.htm]. Available from NASA History Series SP-4211
  5. Humans to Mars: Fifty Years of Mission Planning, 1950–2000, David S. F. Portree, Monographs in Aerospace History #21 NASA SP-2001-4521
  6. Launius, Roger D. “Public Opinion Polls and Perceptions of US Human Spaceflight.” Space Policy 19, no. 3 (2003): 163–75. doi:10.1016/S0265-9646(03)00039-0.
  7.  Nicky, Woolf, SpaceX founder Elon Musk plans to get humans to Mars in six years https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/sep/27/elon-musk-spacex-mars-colony
  8. President Donald J. Trump signs NASA Transition Authorization Act of 2017, https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2017/03/21/president-donald-j-trump-signs-nasa-transition-authorization-act-2017
  9. Featured image: A view of the Apollo 11 lunar module Eagle as it returned from the surface of the moon to dock with the command module Columbia. A smooth mare area is visible on the Moon below and a half-illuminated Earth hangs over the horizon. Source: http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/imgcat/html/object_page/a11_h_44_6642.html 

 

Climate Histories: The hellish planet and the super-organism Gaia

On December 14, 1962, after a three-and-a-half-month journey of 293 million kilometres from Earth, NASA’s Mariner 2 spacecraft, approached Venus. Forty-four minutes before closest approach – at a distance of 34,773 kilometers from Venus, Mariner’s 2 radiometers began to scan the planet’s dayside.

On January 3, 1963, twenty days after passing Venus, Mariner 2 transmitted half an hour of telemetry and then went silent. Radio contact was lost for ever. Mariner 2 became a mute piece of metal, endlessly circling the Sun in a heliocentric orbit.

Mariner 2 was the first spacecraft to successfully flyby another planet. The mission was an outstanding success and it created a great deal of publicity. William Pickering, the director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, which was responsible for designing Mariner 2,  found himself featured on the cover of Time Magazine and rode as Grand Marshall of the Tournament of Roses Parade in Pasadena.

William Pickering, on the cover of Time magazine. Cover Credit Boris Artzybasheff

In the meantime, the scientific debate over what Mariner 2 might find at Venus had been intensified.  Radio observations in the 1950s gave rise to two interpretations – an extremely hot planet, with surface temperature at least at 342°C or a planet with a relatively benign surface temperature. But all the evidence from Mariner 2 seemed to confirm the high surface temperature interpretation. Venus was a hellish world. Ground temperatures were as high as 428oC (800oF). There was no evidence of a magnetic field around the planet and they couldn’t detect any water vapour in its atmosphere. Five years later, Mariner 5 revealed a thick cloud-covered planet with even higher temperatures and a crushing atmosphere.

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“A marvellous development” – Nimbus and ESSA satellites

NASA was involved in the U.S MetSat programme since the 1960s, by largely building the world’s first meteorological satellite TIROS-I, a project that  was transferred from ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency), to the newly formed civilian space administration. TIROS, the first satellite to include television and infrared sensor systems as well as a ground station, a command control system and a data acquisition system, was put in orbit from Cape Canaveral on 1st April, 1960 by a Thor-Able launch vehicle and immediately start sending the first pictures to Earth.

This is a  “marvellous development”,  said President Eisenhower, when he saw the first pictures sent by TIROS-1, only seven hours after the launch, while Senator Lyndon B. Johnson stated that TIROS was the “best space news we have had in a long time, ….. a tremendous step toward peace”. The pictures were of low quality by today’s standards, and they were showing only land masses and cloud formations, but they were valuable to meteorologists, as for the first time they could see images of entire weather systems. Nine subsequent TIROS satellites followed the first one, sending a total of 649,077 pictures to earth from 1st April, 1960 to 1st July 1st, 1965.

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